What Kind of Editor Is Right For You? By Catherine Foster 

Congratulations! You’ve finally typed the long-awaited words of your masterpiece—“The End.” You thought this day would never come. But what is the next step? Do you need an editor now? If so, what type? Wading through the different services that professional editors provide can be confusing and the process of selecting the right one for your needs can be daunting. There are as many types of editors out there as there are authors, and they all offer a different level of support depending on what you might require. Some editors span a spectrum of services and some focus on a niche according to the area of expertise. Let’s break it down starting with the most general help you might need at the beginning of the project and go from there:

Alpha readers: This is someone who is a nonprofessional. They will likely be found amongst your family or friends. Find someone won’t mind reading a first, unpolished draft of your work. They will likely have a lot of encouragement for you. This is important, since it is the first time you will share your story with someone. Ask them for what their favorite parts are and for things that don’t make sense. They may catch some grammar blunders, some glaring plotholes or elements of the story that don’t make sense. This is the time to do some rewrites and get a second or third draft in order as the story takes shape.

Beta readers: Like the alpha reader, this group is generally also unpaid and unprofessional, although some companies do offer this as a paid service. These readers are exactly what they sound like: they read through your story and offer opinions on what they liked or didn’t like about the plot and characters. Beta readers can be found through online advertisements, but they are most commonly found in writing groups and places that encourage group input. You can also offer to read through a fellow author’s work in exchange for their advice on your own composition. However you go about finding this second opinion on your work, remember that this person should not, ideally, be a close friend or family member. The feedback that you receive from this round of critiques will give you a little more insight into the reader’s perspective; you are not obligated to take action on these observations, but you will have a more well-rounded view of some things to incorporate into the next draft.

Developmental editors (these are also sometimes referred to as substantive, structural or content editors): After a few people have read your story and you have tweaked your novel as much as you can on your own, you may feel that you are ready for the services of a professional editor. When a developmental editor reads through your novel, they will not start with grammar and punctuation. They will first need to do what can be thought of as a “big-picture” edit: that is, they will make sure that the story itself makes sense. A developmental editor’s job is to make sure the plot is sound. Are there any plot holes that need to be curtailed? Do the characters stay true to their descriptions? Do you introduce someone who is too similar to someone else? What is the point or theme of the story? How is the pacing? Do you answer all the questions that you asked? Does a certain storyline veer off and disappear? Would something make more sense if it was moved to the end or brought forward to the middle? A developmental editor prunes the withered parts and encourages growth from the atrophied sections. He marks the portions that don’t make sense and he highlights the passages that are beautiful but obscured. He polishes away at your story so that you know how and where to reveal a hidden gem in the extraneous words.

Line Editors: When the dust settles from the developmental edit, the finer work of the line edit can begin. The line edit consists of cleaning up the structural bits. Is the piece readable in its current form? How are grammar, spelling and syntax? Are the meanings clear throughout? Are phrases authentic and as good as they can possibly be? Is the dialogue appropriate and are the tags correct? A line editor ensures proper word choice throughout and is responsible for checking minor plot inconsistencies. They must be on guard to check for repetition and to flag against inconsistencies. Sentence flow must be upheld and is a major responsibility of the line editor. Conciseness is encouraged and upheld.

Copy editors: The copy editor’s role is very similar to the line editor, and sometimes they can be combined. The roles often overlap at this stage in that the copy editor is also responsible for appropriate word choice, inconsistency and standard grammar, spelling and syntax checks. The copy editor’s role varies slightly in that they have more responsibility for catching the even finer details of punctuation, indentation, formatting, and paragraph and section breaks.

Proofreader: Many people confuse “proofreader” with “beta reader”, but really a proofreader is the final step before the manuscript goes to publication. This step is usually reserved for extremely meticulous authors, professional authors or people who intend to self-publish and want to ensure absolutely no mistakes in the process. The proofreader’s job includes some of the items on the copy editor’s list, such as making sure there are no glaring errors. Ideally, however, all of these steps have been taken prior to the manuscript reaching the proofreader. They should only be scanning for an errant punctuation mark here or there. Their job is mostly to check on formatting, the removal of extraneous spaces, to highlight stacked hyphens, to remove widows and orphans, to ensure the consistency of late additions of text and design elements, and the finest details of formatting that would guarantee the work is absolutely error free prior to print.

Ghostwriter: On the other end of the spectrum, a ghostwriter can be hired to clean up your text.  This occurs when a person writes any portion of your story, up to and including all of it. They typically collect a fee for this service in exchange for allowing you to remain listed publicly as the author. Sometimes authors will have an idea for a story but don’t know how to execute the writing. In other cases, people will begin writing most or all of their story, but through the editing process they realize they can’t turn their story into a viable book. In these cases a ghostwriter can aid a client with 1) writing the entire story themselves after a series of interviews or 2) taking the already written material and editing it to such a degree that it is a fusion of the idea of the original author and the writing capabilities of the ghostwriter. The option to use a ghostwriter can almost be viewed as extreme editing and allows some people to have their stories told who would not otherwise have a chance to do so.

Editing is as unique as you are! I hope that this illuminates the choices available to you as you start your editing journey. The LetterWorks offers edits in all styles, and our editors have specialties in every kind of discipline listed here, so please don’t hesitate to think of us for your next big project. We are excited to help you as you work to hone your craft!

Can You Afford A High Quality Editor? (The Answer Might Surprise You) by Catherine Foster

There are many decisions that factor into choosing an editor, but one of the most important for authors is usually the price. How much will it cost to edit your novel? Can you even afford it to begin with, or is this something so expensive that you need to take out a loan? What’s the ballpark for this kind of service? Unfortunately for many new authors, cost is also often a confusing question that doesn’t seem to become any clearer upon initial investigation. Many editors seem coy about offering up a flat rate, which can lead to a sense of elusiveness about price that many authors find frustrating. There is no set industry rate, leading to wild price fluctuations from one editor to the next. Can you determine worth between editors? Is there a way get a firm answer on what the final price for your project will be? Is it even worth it in the end? Can you even afford an editor?

The answer to these questions is yes … and most likely. Selecting an editor is difficult for many reasons. Currently, in the U.S. and in the rest of the world, there are no definitive tests or certifications that exist to standardize editors. This means that the onus of investigation into the practice and knowledge of each editor falls onto the consumer. Namely: you. Since there is no agreed upon way for an editor to point the consumer to a degree or certification to show his value, this means that each and every editor has his own way of demonstrating worth. Some positive things to look for would be many years of experience in professional editing, a significant list of clients or a record of edited and published titles, a well-designed website and a fully-entrenched social media presence. Red flags include a hastily designed website, spelling or grammar errors and someone without a list of references or much experience.

A good resource for finding reputable editors is through the EFA (Editorial Freelancers Association) or ACES (American Copy Editors Society). These are places that cultivate professional membership, and you can search profiles of thousands of qualified individuals. You can post a listing for an editor for whatever you are working on, and you will receive hundreds of responses in an hour. Your only decision will be how much money you want to spend.

The next step in selecting an editor is contacting them. Are they prompt in returning your e-mails? Do they edit your type of work? Some editors are academic editors while others work in the medical field. If you are seeking an editor for your memoir, you want someone who has experience with that genre. Do you like their personality? Remember, this is a job interview for a personal project, and you have to be able to work with them closely for (potentially) a long while. You want to be able to take direction from someone you like. Some other things to consider are: is this person clear and professional in their responses? Do they have an opening in their schedule for your work that suits your timeline? How will they communicate with you, and how will they make their edits? These are all important questions that will help you determine who you will select.

That brings us to the question of budget. There are many ways to determine to how charge for editing, and each editor is different. This is the cause for confusion among authors, and understandably so. At more professional places such as the EFA, it is the standard to charge an hourly fee, usually between thirty-five and fifty-five dollars an hour. Some editors charge by the word and some charge by the page. The matter can become more complicated when we define a “page”: to an author, they simply look at the number of pages in their word processor. To an editor, a page is defined as 250 words. There is usually some calculation necessary when looking at the total of the work, which renders the actual number of pages displayed double or more. An author, therefore, must be aware that if they are being charged per page that it will not necessarily be per the number of pages they believe but a much higher number. The same applies to the word count. Oftentimes different word processing programs count characters differently—a hyphen or an ellipses or a comma in one program is not considered a “word”, but in the transfer to the editor’s program all/some of those characters may become words. This may seem like a small detail, but when it is your dollar, they add up fast. It is something of which to be aware.

Should you just have a friend edit your document or find someone on Craigslist? They will be cheaper, certainly, but in our experience, if you are serious about getting your work published, you need a professional editor. It is possible to find someone through the classifieds in this way, but beware a discount price—the old adage that you get what you pay for is, unfortunately, true. Many of our clients are people who are on their second or third round from just such an experience. They hoped to economize, but in the end they chose to spend the money twice over to get the appropriate service they required—one which they all have expressed that they did not end up finding through lesser means.

How, then, can you make sure that you can afford your edit? The first step should be asking for a sample edit. There is a schism amongst professional editors: half of them do not provide sample edits, and the other half do. It is your right as a discerning consumer to ask for one. If you find an editor that you like and they don’t provide a sample edit, you may of course go forward, but you should proceed with caution. A sample edit serves to protect both you and your editor. Your editor is assessing how much work is involved in your piece and the time it will take him to complete this work. Only then can he give you an accurate quote of price. On your end, you will get a chance to see what he can provide, if you like his style enough for a thorough edit and if you truly want to pay for his entire service.

Once you are agreed, an editor should be able to give you an accurate quote based on that sample edit. If this is a time-based quote, he should be able to tell you how many hours it will take him to finish the job. It is important that he agree not to exceed this number, and that he agrees to finish the project at the same price even if he underestimates the time. If it is based on the number of words, it will still be an exact price. There should be a contract in place, and most editors require a certain payment schedule throughout the project and before delivery; this is normal. When you deal with a professional editor, you will find that you are contracting a person for a specific service, and that is all outlined in the contract. This is, again, for your protection and theirs. It may seem daunting at first, but it should be viewed as a relief. If you ever deal with an editor who does not have a contract, you should not ever pay any monies! This is a warning sign to you. Having a contract in place is a record that this person is obligated to provide exactly what they outline; they promise to do so by a certain date and time. You should read your contract carefully. You do have legal recourse should your editor not provide what they promise. While it should never come to that, it is a protection to you as well as to them. It is also something you can refer to as the project progresses as a record to make sure that both sides are holding to their end. This is a benefit to contracting a professional and part of your contracted service.

Each freelancer is different, and each way of handling payments is as varied as there are editors and authors. At The LetterWorks, we understand that editing can be expensive, and it isn’t always easy to work into your budget. We want everyone to have access to high-quality editing, and to meet that goal we try to structure creative ways to budget. We’ve worked out a lot of different ways to work with our clients, from changing the timeline to the size of the project to the methods in which we can work on it. We are ready to meet your needs in any way we can. Editing may be more affordable than you think. Please check us out and let us help you make your writing dream a published reality.

Tips from a Developmental Editor: the Story Question Solution by T.N. Rosema  


At the developmental stage, many writers know their characters inside out. (“My heroine’s eye colour is green. She’s a Gemini. Her favourite television show is CSI New York.”) They aren’t always so clear about what happens in their story. Plotting is hard!

This blog focuses on just one plotting technique, simple but mighty. It’s called the Story Question.

The Story Question shows up in Dwight V. Swain’s evergreen Techniques for the Selling Writer. According to Swain, any marketable story has five elements.

  1. Character: your main character X.
  2. Situation: the story “trouble” requiring X to act.
  3. Goal: what does X want to achieve or retain?
  4. Antagonist: their job is to resist X’s goal(s). Weak antagonists can ruin a story!
  5. Disaster: the dire threat X faces near story’s end.


Now map these five elements into two sentences: a statement, and a question.

The Statement nails your Character, Situation, and Goal.

The Question nails your Antagonist and Disaster.


Here is Swain’s pulp-fiction example.


When humans suddenly begin to grow to 12-foot height


John Storm


Tries to find out why.


SENTENCE 1 (Statement)

But can he defeat


The traitors in high places


Who want to kill him in order to make the change appear to be a result of an extra-terrestrial plot?


SENTENCE 2 (Question)

The Story Question isn’t a magic formula, but it can trigger meaningful decisions about your work.

This short story feels too lean because I haven’t really described my Situation.”

Is X moving towards her overall Goal here, or is this scene just padding?

No wonder the tension sags in Act Three of my novel. The Antagonist is weak.”

The Disaster happened early, so everything after it read like an anti-climax.”



In conclusion, if your characters are vivid but your story is relatively thin, try forming a Story Question. It nails down your key elements, and you can begin to create a compelling plot.


Meet Our Editors!

Catherine Foster is a twelve year editing veteran and an accomplished author of over 70 published works. She was nominated for a Pushcart Prize for her own work. This, combined with her experience as the submissions editor for Bedlam Publishing, gives her a unique perspective on keeping manuscripts from the dreaded circular file. In fact, she boasts a remarkable 86% rate of her edited works being published. She is also a member of the Editorial Freelancers Association.

When asked about the most memorable work she has edited, she said, “The thing I am most proud to have worked on is an upcoming volume of poetry by Ramez Qureshi (publication date 12/2017). He was a student who died just prior to 9/11. The Estate put all of his things in storage for years, and when they went through them a few years ago, they found a treasure trove of amazing poetry, but a lot of it was unintelligible. They contacted two companies to transcribe it before they came to us, but no one was able to do it. I took the job, and after hundreds of painstaking hours of pouring over letters, I was able to decode Ramez’s entire collected works. One of the poems was written on the last day he died. It was touching and heartfelt beyond belief, and I was forever changed by the experience. I wrote about the experience in my own memoir. I later was part of the team who selected and edited a first round of the poems for publication, and this is an incredibly personal endeavor for me. I am so honored to help bring Ramez’s words to light after so long.”

When she isn’t working with the written word, Catherine spends her days raising her children and chasing her six cats and three dogs. She also enjoys playing classical piano, practicing her German, and baking fancy cakes and breads.

Melissa Heiselt is an experienced editor and writer. She has worked as a research writer, copywriter, and blog writer for about ten years. She has a Bachelor’s Degree in English, and minored in Linguistics. She specializes in higher-level edits; helping with structure and cohesiveness, suggesting alternative words, pointing out discrepancies between the style/tone. A former homeschool teacher, she enjoys the teaching aspect of editing and seeks to always make her clients stronger authors. She taught English in China and spent a number of years doing ESL tutoring.
A self-professed word nerd, she lists the Classics and Fantasy among her favorite genres. Brandon Sanderson, Ursula K. LeGuin, and Shakespeare all top her list of favorite authors. She particularly admires Ms. LeGuin for her precise and beautiful prose.  Melissa loves poetry with a heartbeat and enjoys compulsively critiquing any stray banner, flyer, or fast food sign she sees.

Josh Smith is not a pseudonym. He is, however, an editor with fourteen years of experience. Eleven of the fifteen pieces he has edited for The LetterWorks thus far have either been published, or are forthcoming as of this writing. He co-founded Bedlam Publishing in 2003, and was named Editor-in-Chief in 2010. Bedlam has produced three different magazine titles over the years, as well as various online publication. Their current art/lit digital magazine, Loud Zoo, is in its fourth year, and their first book is scheduled for publication in September.
When he isn’t busy editing, childhood dreams of being a mad scientist and a musician take hold, and he tinkers with found objects and simple circuits with noisy, percussive results. He has a floofy dog named Tractor, who some say is the brains of the operation. His favorite writers include Jeff VanderMeer and Jorge Luis Borges, and as such, loves to edit fiction that exists beyond the boundaries of expectation and familiarity.

Eleven Steps to Becoming a Published Author by Amanda Wayne

Step one: Write something. Pretty simple, right? You just sit down in front of your computer and pour out a few thousand words. There should be a beginning, middle, and an end. You might want a plot and a few characters. Perhaps you could throw in some action and dialogue.

Step Two: Okay, you nailed the writing part. Go you! Now comes the less exciting part. Set your manuscript aside. Figuratively and literally. Move on. Get coffee. See a movie. Write a new story. Wait at least a month. No peeking.

Step Three: Read your story all the way through. Don’t stop to change tenses or adjust the dialogue. No editing whatsoever. Read it as if you weren’t the one to write it. Ask yourself, “Does my story make sense?” Do not ask yourself if the story is any good. First drafts rarely are.

Step Four: Read it again. Make notes about changes that need to be made. Don’t worry about proofreading right now. There is no point in adding a comma to a sentence that may not even exist tomorrow. Think about the scenes; are they necessary to the plot or just taking up space? Make those changes, change your mind and undo your changes and then change them again.

Step Five: Now that the story is officially a second draft, you can have someone else read it. Give away your precious baby to someone brutal. Pick someone who can tell you the truth. Friends, while well-meaning, do not usually make good Alpha readers. If all anyone tells you is that it’s really good, they aren’t helping. You need them to be blunt and honest. Take their feedback and decide whether to implement their advice. Make those changes or find a new reader. You can also pay a professional editor to read your work and give you substantive or developmental advice. These people are there to tell you that the knife on page seven isn’t in the same place on page thirteen, that Annalisa used to have blonde hair, and that you don’t really need all of page seventeen.

Step Six: Okay, now your story is in pretty good shape. It’s looking more and more like a Pulitzer Prize winner. Now is the time for some real editing. If grammar and dangling modifiers aren’t your forte, hire or bribe a good editor to do it for you. There are thousands of people who claim to be editors. A good editor is probably going to cost you at least a penny per word. That’s industry standard. Be wary of anyone giving you a lower quote. You get what you pay for.

Step Seven: Your copy is back from the editor and it is just chock full of red pen! Oh no! Don’t sweat it. Even great writers need an editor. Go through your story again. Make adjustments to tense, punctuation, grammar, style, and voice. Read through the story from back to front. This will feel weird. The sentences don’t go in this order. You aren’t looking for order, you already did that. You’re looking for misplaced commas, incorrect tenses, and missing quotations.

Step Eight: Another round of readers. Find another reader who is equally as unforgiving. Have them read your mostly polished manuscript and give you feedback. Give it to a few more people. Take their praise and criticism and change what needs to be changed or leave it all the same.

Step Nine: Write or hire someone to write a really great cover letter for your submission. There are many templates available online to give you ideas. A submission cover letter introduces you to the publishing house or literary magazine. You can list any previous publications you might have or just try to make it sound as if you have some idea what you are doing. A cover letter the resume of the writing world. Your work can and will stand on its own merit; but the cover letter will operate as an opening act.

Step Ten: Slap a stamp on that manuscript and send it off to Judgment Day. You will probably get rejected. A nice little form letter will arrive in the mail long after you stopped impulsively checking your mailbox. If you get lucky, some thoughtful submissions editor will scrawl one line about how you should keep trying.  It will crush your soul. All of your hard work! All those hours!

Step Eleven: Repeat Step Ten. Again. Again. Again. Again. Again.

Keep writing, even when those rejection letters start to pile up. They aren’t proof of anything other than your specific piece wasn’t the right fit for that particular publisher at this exact moment. With an eye for careful editing and thoughtful submissions process, you are sure to succeed and become a published author!

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